Environmental and personal determinants of the uptake of disinfection by-products during swimming.

TitleEnvironmental and personal determinants of the uptake of disinfection by-products during swimming.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsFont-Ribera L, Kogevinas M, Schmalz C, Zwiener C, Marco E, Grimalt JO, Liu J, Zhang X, Mitch W, Critelli R, Naccarati A, Heederik D, Spithoven J, Arjona L, de Bont J, Gracia-Lavedan E, Villanueva CM
JournalEnviron Res
Date Published2016 MAY 19

BACKGROUND: Trihalomethanes (THMs) in exhaled breath and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in urine are internal dose biomarkers of exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools.

OBJECTIVE: We assessed how these biomarkers reflect the levels of a battery of DBPs in pool water and trichloramine in air, and evaluated personal determinants.

METHODS: A total of 116 adults swam during 40min in a chlorinated indoor pool. We measured chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform in exhaled breath and TCAA in urine before and after swimming, trichloramine in air and several DBPs in water. Personal determinants included sex, age, body mass index (BMI), distance swum, energy expenditure, heart rate and 12 polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTZ1 and CYP2E1 genes.

RESULTS: Median level of exhaled total THMs and creatinine adjusted urine TCAA increased from 0.5 to 14.4µg/m(3) and from 2.5 to 5.8µmol/mol after swimming, respectively. The increase in exhaled brominated THMs was correlated with brominated THMs, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloramines, total organic carbon and total organic halogen in water and trichloramine in air. Such correlations were not detected for exhaled chloroform, total THMs or urine TCAA. Exhaled THM increased more in men, urine TCAA increased more in women, and both were affected by exercise intensity. Genetic variants were associated with differential increases in exposure biomarkers.

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, although affected by sex, physical activity and polymorphisms in key metabolizing enzymes, brominated THMs in exhaled breath could be used as a non-invasive DBP exposure biomarker in swimming pools with bromide-containing source waters. This warrants confirmation with new studies.

Alternate JournalEnviron. Res.
PubMed ID27214136
Publication section: